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If you are aspiring to learn Hadoop in the right path, then you have
landed at the perfect place. In this Hadoop tutorial article, you will
learn right from basics to the advanced Hadoop concepts in a very
simple and transparent method. In preference, you can also watch the
following video where our Hadoop Training expert is discussing
Hadoop concepts along with practical examples.
Hadoop Tutorial For Beginners | Hadoop Training | aws-senior.com
In this Hadoop tutorial article, we will be covering the following
* How it all started?
* What is Big Data?
* Big Data and Hadoop: Restaurant Analogy
* What is Hadoop?
* Features of Hadoop
* Hadoop Core Components
* Hadoop Last.FM Case Study
How It All Started?
Before getting into technicalities in this Hadoop tutorial article, let
me begin with an interesting story on How Hadoop came into existence?
and Why is it so popular in the industry nowadays?.
So, it all started with two people, Mike Cafarella and Doug Cutting,
who were in the process of building a search engine system that can
index 1 billion pages. After their research, they estimated that such a
system will cost around half a million dollars in hardware, with a
monthly running cost of $30,000, which is quite expensive. However,
they soon realized that their architecture will not be capable enough
to work around with billions of pages on the web.
They came across a paper, published in 2003, that described the
architecture of Google’s distributed file system, called GFS,
which was being used in production at Google. Now, this paper on
GFS proved to be something that they were looking for, and soon,
they realized that it would solve all their problems of storing very
large files that are generated as a part of the web crawl and indexing
Later in 2004, Google published one more paper that introduced
MapReduce to the world. Finally, these two papers led to the
foundation of the framework called “Hadoop“. Doug quoted on
Google’s contribution to the development of Hadoop framework:
“Google is living a few years in the future and sending the rest of us
So, by now you would have realized how powerful Hadoop is. Now, before
moving on to Hadoop, let us start the discussion with Big Data,
that led to the development of Hadoop.
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What is Big Data?
Have you ever wondered how technologies evolve to fulfil emerging
hadoop tutorial landline to smart phones
Earlier we had landline phones, but now we have shifted to smartphones.
Similarly, how many of you remember floppy drives that were extensively
used back in the ’90s? These Floppy drives have been replaced by Hard
disks because these floppy drives had very low storage capacity and
hadoop tutorial floppy to disk
Thus, this makes floppy drives insufficient for handling the amount of
data with which we are dealing today. In fact, now we can store
terabytes of data on the cloud without being bothered about size
Now, let us talk about various drivers that contribute to the
generation of data.
hadoop tutorial IoT
IoT connects your physical device to the internet and makes it smarter.
Nowadays, we have smart air conditioners, televisions etc. Your smart
air conditioner constantly monitors your room temperature along with
the outside temperature and accordingly decides what should be the
temperature of the room. Now imagine how much data would be generated
in a year by smart air conditioner installed in tens & thousands of
houses. By this, you can understand how IoT is contributing a
major share to Big Data.
Now, let us talk about the largest contributor of the Big Data which
is, none other than, Social media.
Social media is one of the most important factors in the evolution of
Big Data as it provides information about people’s behaviour. You can
look at the figure below and get an idea of how much data is getting
generated every minute:
Social Media – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Social
Media Data Generation Stats
Apart from the rate at which the data is getting generated, the second
factor is the lack of proper format or structure in these data sets
that makes processing a challenge.
Hadoop Tutorial: Big Data & Hadoop – Restaurant Analogy
Let us take an analogy of a restaurant to understand the problems
associated with Big Data and how Hadoop solved that problem.
Bob is a businessman who has opened a small restaurant. Initially, in
his restaurant, he used to receive two orders per hour and he had one
chef with one food shelf in his restaurant which was sufficient enough
to handle all the orders.
Traditional Restaurant Analogy – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Traditional Restaurant Scenario
Now let us compare the restaurant example with the traditional scenario
where data was getting generated at a steady rate and our traditional
systems like RDBMS is capable enough to handle it, just like Bob’s
chef. Here, you can relate the data storage with the restaurant’s food
shelf and the traditional processing unit with the chef as shown in the
Traditional Scenario Failed – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Traditional Scenario
After a few months, Bob thought of expanding his business and
therefore, he started taking online orders and added few more cuisines
to the restaurant’s menu in order to engage a larger audience. Because
of this transition, the rate at which they were receiving orders rose
to an alarming figure of 10 orders per hour and it became quite
difficult for a single cook to cope up with the current situation.
Aware of the situation in processing the orders, Bob started thinking
about the solution.
Distributed Chef – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Distributed Processing Scenario
Similarly, in Big Data scenario, the data started getting generated at
an alarming rate because of the introduction of various data growth
drivers such as social media, smartphones etc.
Now, the traditional system, just like the cook in Bob’s restaurant,
was not efficient enough to handle this sudden change. Thus, there was
a need for a different kind of solutions strategy to cope up with this
After a lot of research, Bob came up with a solution where he hired 4
more chefs to tackle the huge rate of orders being received. Everything
was going quite well, but this solution led to one more problem. Since
four chefs were sharing the same food shelf, the very food shelf was
becoming the bottleneck of the whole process. Hence, the solution was
not that efficient as Bob thought. Distributed System Limitations –
Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Distributed Processing Scenario Failure
Similarly, to tackle the problem of processing huge data sets, multiple
processing units were installed so as to process the data in parallel
(just like Bob hired 4 chefs). But even in this case, bringing multiple
processing units was not an effective solution because the centralized
storage unit became the bottleneck.
In other words, the performance of the whole system is driven by the
performance of the central storage unit. Therefore, the moment our
central storage goes down, the whole system gets compromised. Hence,
again there was a need to resolve this single point of failure.
Restaurant Solution – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Solution to Restaurant Problem
Bob came up with another efficient solution, he divided all the chefs
into two hierarchies, that is a Junior and a Head chef and assigned
each junior chef with a food shelf. Let us assume that the dish is Meat
Sauce. Now, according to Bob’s plan, one junior chef will prepare meat
and the other junior chef will prepare the sauce. Moving ahead they
will transfer both meat and sauce to the head chef, where the head chef
will prepare the meat sauce after combining both the ingredients, which
then will be delivered as the final order.
Hadoop as a Solution – Restaurant Analogy – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Hadoop in Restaurant Analogy
Hadoop functions in a similar fashion as Bob’s restaurant. As the food
shelf is distributed in Bob’s restaurant, similarly, in Hadoop, the
data is stored in a distributed fashion with replications, to
provide fault tolerance. For parallel processing, first the data is
processed by the slaves where it is stored for some intermediate
results and then those intermediate results are merged by master node
to send the final result.
Now, you must have got an idea why Big Data is a problem statement
and how Hadoop solves it. As we just discussed above, there were
three major challenges with Big Data:
* The first problem is storing the colossal amount of data
hadoop tutorial colossal data
Storing huge data in a traditional system is not possible. The reason
is obvious, the storage will be limited to one system and the data
is increasing at a tremendous rate.
* The second problem is storing heterogeneous data
hadoop tutorial- types of data
Now we know that storing is a problem, but let me tell you it is just
one part of the problem. The data is not only huge, but it is also
present in various formats i.e. unstructured, semi-structured and
structured. So, you need to make sure that you have a system to store
different types of data that is generated from various sources.
* Finally let’s focus on the third problem, which is the processing
hadoop tutorial processing speed
Now the time taken to process this huge amount of data is quite high as
the data to be processed is too large.
To solve the storage issue and processing issue, two core components
were created in Hadoop – HDFS and YARN. HDFS solves the
storage issue as it stores the data in a distributed fashion and is
easily scalable. And, YARN solves the processing issue by reducing the
processing time drastically. Moving ahead, let us understand what is
What is Hadoop?
Hadoop is an open-source software framework used for storing and
processing Big Data in a distributed manner on large clusters of
commodity hardware. Hadoop is licensed under the Apache v2 license.
Hadoop was developed, based on the paper written by Google on the
MapReduce system and it applies concepts of functional
programming. Hadoop is written in the Java programming language
and ranks among the highest-level Apache projects. Hadoop was developed
by Doug Cutting and Michael J. Cafarella.
Let’s understand how Hadoop provides a solution to the Big Data
problems that we have discussed so far.
Hadoop-as-a-Solution – What is Hadoop – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Hadoop-as-a-Solution
* The first problem is storing huge amount of data.
As you can see in the above image, HDFS provides a distributed way to
store Big Data. Your data is stored in blocks in DataNodes and you
specify the size of each block. Suppose you have 512 MB of data and you
have configured HDFS such that it will create 128 MB of data blocks.
Now, HDFS will divide data into 4 blocks as 512/128=4 and stores it
across different DataNodes. While storing these data blocks into
DataNodes, data blocks are replicated on different DataNodes to provide
Hadoop follows horizontal scaling instead of vertical scaling. In
horizontal scaling, you can add new nodes to HDFS cluster on the run as
per requirement, instead of increasing the hardware stack present in
* Next problem was storing a variety of data.
As you can see in the above image, in HDFS you can store all kinds of
data whether it is structured, semi-structured or unstructured. In
HDFS, there is no pre-dumping schema validation. It also follows write
once and read many models. Due to this, you can just write any kind of
data once and you can read it multiple times for finding insights.
* The third challenge was about processing the data faster.
In order to solve this, we move the processing unit to data instead of
moving data to the processing unit.
So, what does it mean by moving the computation unit to data?
It means that instead of moving data from different nodes to a single
master node for processing, the processing logic is sent to the nodes
where data is stored so as that each node can process a part of data in
parallel. Finally, all of the intermediary output produced by each node
is merged together and the final response is sent back to the client.
Features of Hadoop
Hadoop Features – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Hadoop Features
When machines are working as a single unit, if one of the machines
fails, another machine will take over the responsibility and work in a
reliable and fault-tolerant fashion. Hadoop infrastructure has inbuilt
fault tolerance features and hence, Hadoop is highly reliable.
Hadoop uses commodity hardware (like your PC, laptop). For example, in
a small Hadoop cluster, all your DataNodes can have normal
configurations like 8-16 GB RAM with 5-10 TB hard disk and Xeon
But if I would have used hardware-based RAID with Oracle for the same
purpose, I would end up spending 5x times more at least. So, the cost
of ownership of a Hadoop-based project is minimized. It is easier to
maintain a Hadoop environment and is economical as well. Also, Hadoop
is open-source software and hence there is no licensing cost.
Hadoop has the inbuilt capability of integrating seamlessly with
cloud-based services. So, if you are installing Hadoop on a cloud, you
don’t need to worry about the scalability factor because you can go
ahead and procure more hardware and expand your set up within minutes
Hadoop is very flexible in terms of the ability to deal with all kinds
of data. We discussed “Variety” in our previous blog on Big Data
Tutorial, where data can be of any kind and Hadoop can store and
process them all, whether it is structured, semi-structured or
These 4 characteristics make Hadoop a front-runner as a solution to Big
Data challenges. Now that we know what is Hadoop, we can explore the
core components of Hadoop. Let us understand, what are the core
components of Hadoop.
Hadoop Core Components
While setting up a Hadoop cluster, you have an option of choosing a lot
of services as part of your Hadoop platform, but there are two services
which are always mandatory for setting up Hadoop. One is HDFS
(storage) and the other is YARN (processing). HDFS stands for Hadoop
Distributed File System, which is a scalable storage unit of Hadoop
whereas YARN is used to process the data i.e. stored in the HDFS in a
distributed and parallel fashion.
Let us go ahead with HDFS first. The main components of HDFS are the
NameNode and the DataNode. Let us talk about the roles of these two
components in detail.
HDFS – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
* It is the master daemon that maintains and manages the DataNodes (slave nodes) * It records the metadata of all the blocks stored in the cluster, e.g. location of blocks stored, size of the files, permissions, hierarchy, etc. * It records each and every change that takes place to the file system metadata * If a file is deleted in HDFS, the NameNode will immediately record this in the EditLog * It regularly receives a Heartbeat and a block report from all the DataNodes in the cluster to ensure that the DataNodes are alive * It keeps a record of all the blocks in the HDFS and DataNode in which they are stored * It has high availability and federation features which I will discuss in HDFS architecture in detail
* It is the slave daemon which runs on each slave machine * The actual data is stored on DataNodes * It is responsible for serving read and write requests from the clients * It is also responsible for creating blocks, deleting blocks and replicating the same based on the decisions taken by the NameNode * It sends heartbeats to the NameNode periodically to report the overall health of HDFS, by default, this frequency is set to 3 seconds
So, this was all about HDFS in nutshell. Now, let move ahead to our
second fundamental unit of Hadoop i.e. YARN.
YARN comprises of two major components:
ResourceManager and NodeManager.
YARN – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – YARN
* It is a cluster-level (one for each cluster) component and runs on the master machine * It manages resources and schedules applications running on top of YARN * It has two components: Scheduler & ApplicationManager * The Scheduler is responsible for allocating resources to the various running applications * The ApplicationManager is responsible for accepting job submissions and negotiating the first container for executing the application * It keeps a track of the heartbeats from the Node Manager
* It is a node-level component (one on each node) and runs on each slave machine * It is responsible for managing containers and monitoring resource utilization in each container * It also keeps track of node health and log management * It continuously communicates with ResourceManager to remain up-to-date
So far you would have figured out that Hadoop is neither a programming
language nor a service, it is a platform or framework which solves Big
Data problems. You can consider it as a suite which encompasses a
number of services for ingesting, storing and analyzing huge data sets
along with tools for configuration management.
Hadoop Ecosystem – Hadoop Tutorial – aws-senior.com
Fig: Hadoop Tutorial – Hadoop Ecosystem
We have discussed Hadoop Ecosystem and their components in detail in
our Hadoop Ecosystem blog. Now in this Hadoop Tutorial, let us
know how Last.fm used Hadoop as a part of their solution strategy.
Hadoop Tutorial: Last.FM Case Study
Hadoop tutorial last.fm
Last.FM is internet radio and community-driven music discovery service
founded in 2002. Users transmit information to Last.FM servers
indicating which songs they are listening to. The received data is
processed and stored so that, the user can access it in the form of
charts. Thus, Last.FM can make intelligent taste and compatible
decisions for generating recommendations. The data is obtained from one
of the two sources stated below:
* scrobble: When a user plays a track of his or her own choice and
sends the information to Last.FM through a client application.
* radio listen: When the user tunes into a Last.FM radio station and
streams a song.
Last.FM applications allow users to love, skip or ban each track they
listen to. This track listening data is also transmitted to the server.
* Over 40M unique visitors and 500M page views each month
* Scrobble stats:
+ Up to 800 scrobbles per second
+ More than 40 million scrobbles per day
+ Over 75 billion scrobbles so far
* Radio stats:
+ Over 10 million streaming hours per month
+ Over 400 thousand unique stations per day
* Each scrobble and radio listen generates at least one logline
Hadoop at Last.FM
* 100 Nodes * 8 cores per node (dual quad-core) * 24GB memory per node * 8TB (4 disks of 2TB each) * Hive integration to run optimized SQL queries for analysis
Last.FM started using Hadoop in 2006 because of the growth in users
from thousands to millions. With the help of Hadoop, they processed
hundreds of daily, monthly, and weekly jobs including website stats and
metrics, chart generation (i.e. track statistics), metadata corrections
(e.g. misspellings of artists), indexing for search,